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European Official Surveys of the 19th Century


This page is also in document form as a PDF that is available for download from here.


The state-sponsored topographical map, covering an entire country to a uniform standard, was pioneered in France by the Cassinis. The Revolutionary Wars caused its spread to what might be termed the front-line states, sometimes as 'fraternal assistance', sometimes in a spirit of recognising that the enemy had something good that ought to be emulated.

Those same wars created a need for efficient taxation, which in turn often led to the creation of a cadaster. Cadastral and topographic surveys needed different skills and proved difficult to bring together in the same organisation. The tensions between the two functions were handled differently in different countries and often lasted into the twentieth century.

All these surveys produced maps which surpass in their detail anything that went before. They are of the utmost value to the archaeologist or the historian. Printed copies are often scarce; and some of these series were for reasons of security never printed. Some have been reproduced in facsimile; but what has really made these maps useful has been their on-line dissemination.

Finding these maps on-line is sometimes difficult, especially for the user who is not a cartographic historian or for countries where there is no convenient cartographic history listing such state surveys. This document attempts to assist.

The scope was to be multi-sheet official topographic surveys of the 19th century. Scales smaller than 1:200k have generally been excluded. Cadastral plans have been included when they formed the basis for a topographic map or when they are presented in a way which enables them so to be used. A very few 18th c. surveys have been included because their quality and detail was up to 19th c. standards. Town plans have generally been excluded, exceptions being made for the Ordnance Survey town scales (which were usually surveyed as part of the general survey of their areas) and maps of a town and environs when these offer high-quality depiction of reasonably large areas.

What constitutes an official survey is by no means straightforward. In a British context, Faden's publication of the Ordnance survey of Kent, reduced to the one-inch scale, counts as official, while Bartholomew's Reduced Ordnance Survey does not. However, making this choice requires a knowledge of cartographic history which the list's compiler does not pretend to for most European countries. In practice, the choice has been driven by perceived utility, which in turn depends on what else is available. Utility is also driven by software aspects: a map of marginal status is more likely to have been included when it can be easily inspected than when it is an awkward and troublesome process to call up the relevant image.

The list is organised by countries, in alphabetical order. In central and eastern Europe, boundaries have changed and states have come and gone. A few cross-references have been inserted but generally the user interested in a particular area is expected to search all the countries that have laid claim to that area and, indeed, all the countries which extended their survey boundaries beyond their own territory to include it. Germany and Italy became unified in the course of the century: constituent states are listed as sub-headings.

Web sites come and go. The user is invited to notify the webmaster of links that no longer work and also of ones which ought to be added.

Finally, in working with graticules on different origins, it may be useful to note that 'Ferro' is at about 17°20' W of Greenwich; Paris is 2°21' E of Greenwich.

Rob Wheeler
January 2020



1st Military Survey
1:28,800, 1764-8, revised 1780-3, for Bohemia. Moravia & Silesia is at

This site also has the 2nd survey for Bohemia and Moravia and the 3rd Survey (1:25k and 1:75k) for the area later Czechoslovakia, All are as individual sheets; the RH margin has detailed population info but there is nothing that refines dating. For the 2nd Military Survey, the reproduction is poorer than the mapire site, although the same source material seems to have been used. For the 1:25k 3rd Military Survey, this site offers a better reproduction of a coloured source, but some sheets are missing. The 1:75k is a gridded printing of c1950 incorporating 20th c revision.

2nd Military Survey
MS, mostly 1:28,800: (If in doubt about boundaries of the territories listed below, a composite map can be accessed at These are beautiful maps, the detail generally being derived from cadastral plans. Hills are artistic rather than accurate. Detail like inaccessible lake shores is often merely taken by eye.

Austria, Lower & Upper (1819-69) at

Bohemia (1842-53) at

Carinthia & Carniola (1829-35) at

Croatia (1865-9) at

Dalmatia (1851-4) at

Ferrara (1815x60) at

Galicia & Bukowina (1861-4) at

Hungary (1819-69) at

Italian territories (1818-29) at

Lichtenstein (1819) at

Moravia (1836-42) at

Papal States & Tuscany (1841-3) at

For the NE part, printed maps are substituted for the MS.

Romania - see Transylvania (N), Moldovia (E), Wallachia (S)

Salzburg (1807-8) at

Styria (1821-36) at

Transylvania (1853-70) at

Trieste (1821-4) at

Tyrol & Trentino (1816-21) at

Vorarlberg (less Feldkirch) (1816-21) at

Wallachia (>1878) at

3rd Military Survey
(1:25k, 1869-87) at

Covers Austria, Lichtenstein, Hungary, Bohemia, part of Balkans, Transylvania. The printed derivative 1:200k (individual sheets with printing dates) is at

Whereas the 1:25k stops at international boundaries, the 1:200k series includes much of Germany, Switzerland, Italy as far as Rome, Northern Greece, Istanbul, and Russia as far as 48°30' E of Ferro (but no further than 53°30' N).

Moravia with pt of Silesia, c1:300k, 1846, revised 1857, reproduced by OS 1866, is at (4 sheets, use green L, R arrows to move between them)

Cadastral Maps
These cover the modern countries of Austria, Hungary, Slovenia & Croatia. A date is given for each district. Revision seems to be limited to 'new ground' created by demolition of fortifications or by reclamation from what had been water, along with the drawing-in of railways. To establish the extent of this revision, redrawn versions of the original plans of towns can be consulted at

Plans for the Czech Republic (some areas only but including Prague) are at Tick the box marked "stabilni katastr spojeny".


1:20k MS (reduced 1845-55 from cadastral plans) at has (all stitched together with modern base)

1:14,400, Villaret, map from Gent-Doornik to Maastricht-Luik, 1745-1748;

J. J. F. graaf de Ferraris, Kabinetskaart der Oostenrijkse Nederlanden en het Prinsbisdom Luik, 1777;

1:20k P. Vandermaelen, Cartes topographiques de la Belgique, 1846-1854;

P.C. Popp, Atlas cadastral parcellaire de la Belgique, 1:5k, 1842-1879. provides access to a variety of Belgian collections. For efficient searching, zoom in closely on the modern map. The intersection option will limit any search to maps whose bounding rectangles overlap the area selected; the overlapping option limits any search to maps whose bounding rectangles are wholly within the area selected.

The coloured 1:20k of the Dépôt de la Guerre is best found by searching on "sinusoidal Bonne"; this produces both individual sheets and a couple of whole-country composites

For the printed cadastral plans at 1:5k, search on "parcellaire": specifying a date range of 1800-1840 will yield those from the atlas of Baron d'Huart, nicely coloured and generally of the 1830s, but not available for all provinces; a date range 1850-1900 will yield the Popp plans of individual parishes. The latter often have an enlargement of the village or town to 1:2500 so may be more useful than the composite version above. Their dates are often given as 1842-79 and there seems no easy way of narrowing this range. Cities were excluded from these atlases but there are sometimes good derivative plans.

For other cadastral material, ranging from early-C19 coloured MS Atlases at 1:2500 to MS sheets of varying character, search on "kadastrale". This is liable to throw up a lot of Popp plans too; they can be excluded by clicking "extented filter" which produces an Advanced Search box - search on "kadastrale" in the title. The manuscript component sheets are usually undated, and have often been assigned the rather wide date-range of 1801-1900 within Cartesius. )This linguistic bias may seem odd, but the few MS cadastral plans in the French-speaking regions tend to be extracts relating to particular owners.) If interested in a particular area it is always worth zooming in on that area and searching on scale and date alone without specifying any keyword.


Kitchener's 1" survey 1878-82 is at


Cadastral plans used to be available but old links do not work.

1:120,000 Slesvigs Fastland & Als, 1851-4: all 6 sheets can be found in
which has multiple copies that are often wrongly described; it is clear from the thumbnails which of the sheets NW/NE/W/E/SW/SE is depicted.

Capt Mansa, Als, 1:80k, reproduced by OS, 1864 at

Capt Mansa, Fyn, 1:160k, reproduced by OS, 1864 at (N & S sheets. Use green L, R arrows to move between them)

Capt Mansa, N Jutland, 1:160k, 1841-7, reproduced by OS, 1864 at (10 sheets. Use green L, R arrows to move between them)


Mellin, Atlas von Liefland, 1798 (which includes Estonia) is at

IH Schmidt, Generalcharte von Esthland, 1844, is at

Country is also shown on Russia 3-verst map.


Large-scale survey of south, 1870-1907 at


Carte de Cassini, Carte de l'étatmajor (a MS fair copy), cadastral plan and more modern mapping are all available on

Resolution is excellent, but there is no metadata: the carte de l'étatmajor has evidently been subject to local revision and the addition of railways seems to have continued later still. The cadastral plan is the modern one, not the 'ancien cadastre'.

Carte topographique des environs de Versailles, dite des Chasses impériales, 1:28,800, 1807 (extending as far as Paris and with finer detail than carte de l'etatmajor) is at

Chemins de fer de Paris à St-Germain, St-Cloud et Versailles (1840) is at

This uses the carte de l'étatmajor as a base and indicates how extensive is the revision incorporated on the MS listed above.

Carte de l'étatmajor (printed, later revision) is at

The detail on this sheet assists in the interpretation of the MS version but railways are added to a later date.

Karte von ElsassLothringen 1:80,000, 1879 (a couple of sheets of which are marked with corrections to be made) is at

This is a German revision of the carte de l'étatmajor (still with French spot heights) in the style of the later Karte des deutschen Reiches.

Carte du cours du Rhin depuis Bâle jusqu'à Lauterbourg, 1:20,270, 1840, is at

This gives little more detail than the étatmajor drawings but is firmly dated and shows both sides of the frontier.

Rhine improvements to 1861, 1:50k, are at

Coarser detail, but they demonstrate that the fenced off rides through woods on the carte de l'étatmajor are the sightlines between survey markers.

Carte de la Frontière Nordest de la France 18701871, 1:320k, a derivative of the carte de l'étatmajor, is at

A later, 4-sheet version, covering more of Germany and showing Rhine improvements, is at;0

SGA, Environs de Paris, 1:20,000.

Plans of fortified towns and environs, with very detailed levelling / contours. Click on 'Tableau d'assemblage' for index sheet. If this shows an irregular detached group of 'sheets', click on that for the contemporary index with details of compilation etc.

Cadastral plans of Paris 1:2001:10k are at
There are 3 fonds:

  1. Cadastral plans of communes incorporated into Paris after 1860, dated 18081850, and similar to other rural plans.
  2. Cadastral plans of Paris before its 1860 enlargement. These show every room in buildings but with little in the way of names (other than of streets). There are also some smaller-scale sketches, typically covering a whole quartier, which appear to give proprietors' names.
  3. Later plans, mostly of the 1890s at 1:500. These use intensity of red to distinguish public buildings (always named). A much paler shade is used for singlestorey ancillary buildings, and also, sometimes, for open ground floors tunnel entrances or open arcades. Some sheets also use denser colour to distinguish domes or towers. These sheets were living documents and additions continued to be made to them.

The site's hierarchical filters are invaluable in finding whatever sheet is sought; even with these it may be necessary to work through a couple of dozen sheets to find what is wanted.



Baden - Grossherzogtum

Schmitt’sche Karte von Südwestdeutschland (1797), 1:57,600 (sideways, to fit overlay) is at

Western limit of coverage is odd: parts of France between Strasbourg and Saarbrücken are included; Pfalz is excluded; right bank of Rhine is included to beyond Bonn.

1:50k (1838-49) is at

This had added railways. Individual sheets, with survey dates, are at

For Rhine maps see France.


Schmitt’sche Karte von Südwestdeutschland (1797), 1:57,600 (sideways, to fit overlay) is at

This includes an area around Salzburg which accords rather vaguely with the territory ceded to Bavaria by the Treaty of Pressburg (1808) and may indicate ongoing revision.

Carte de la Bavière 1:100k, 1801-6, printed 1900 is at

This gives the index sheet (and trig diagram). Click on the link under 'This work ...' / 'Dieses werk ...' to get the individual sheets. Select the thumbnails tab. Maps are presented in a logical sequence: index sheet, I7, I8, I9, ... ; that and the appearance of the thumbnail makes it possible to find any desired sheet. Note that sheets H7, H8, H9, H10, H11, L8, were never published.

The topographic sheets at 1:50,000 are at (Note that there appear to be railways added to this set as late as 1871).

They were derived (apart from, perhaps, the first few) from the cadastral survey, via an intermediate reduction to 1:25,000. The MS sheets for this (the Urpositionsblätter) are available at though scan quality is unsatisfactory.

Each of these 1:25k sheets was derived from 4x4 1:5000 cadastral survey sheets. These are not available on-line, but the enlargements to 1:2500 made to cover towns (Ortsblätter) are available at listed alphabetically by placename.

Generalquartiermeister-Stabo, Bayerische Pfalz 1:150k is at

For Rhine improvements, see France.

Hannover & Braunschweig

1:100k by Papen in 66 sheets, 1832-47. Index at

To see sheet N, go to image N+12 (box bottom right - may be hidden by the cookies banner), which may not be exactly N, and use left/right arrows to get to N itself. Marginalia do not include a date.

Hesse - Kurfürstentum

1:25k Niveaukarte (1840-61) is at
- for adequate quality, download vollbild jpeg and use zoom.

1:50k with hachures (1840-58) not available on-line.

Hesse - Großherzogtum Hessen-Darmstadt

1:50,000 (1832-1850) is at
- for adequate quality, download vollbild jpeg and use zoom.

Hessen-Homburg - Landgrafschaft

1:20k (2 sheets) is at

- for adequate quality, download vollbild jpeg and use zoom. Bad Homburg was sandwiched between Hessen-Darmstadt and Nassau and is included on the 1:50k of the former, but these sheets extend usefully beyond this Landgrave's borders and help to cover a missing Nassau sheet.


This awkward principality surrounded (largely) by Württemberg , is not included on the maps of that kingdom but will be found on the Schmitt’sche Karte von Südwestdeutschland, listed under Baden.

Nassau - Herzogtum

1:20k (1819) is at

- for adequate quality, download vollbild jpeg and use zoom.


The Schmettau map of Brandenburg, 1767-87, is available with modern overlay, at

Covers modern Länder of Brandenburg & Berlin.

Karte von Ost-Preussen nebst Preussisch Litthauen und West-Preussen nebst dem Netzdistrict, 1:150k in 25 sheets, 1796-1812, at

Covers the provinces of West Prussia (ie Danzig area) and East Prussia (Königsberg area).

David Gilly, Special Karte von Suedpreussen, 1:150k, 1802-3, at

This covers the province known as Posen, based on the city of that name (now Poznan) and lying SW of West Prussia.


1:12k by FL Aster, 1780-1806: see

1:25k Topographische Karte (Äquidistantenkarte) - 156 sheets, 1874-1918. Incorporated within Imperial series - but this site offers a wide choice of editions. See (NW from Dresden) (E part of state) (S part)

1:57,600 Topographic Atlas is at

This was issued 1821-60, and the set reproduced has railway revision to at least 1855. For early individual sheets, marked up in red for railway revision, see

1:100k Topographische Karte, 1863 at

Appears unrelated to the later Karte des deutschen Reiches.


Only a few specimens, but
provides an introduction to historic official maps written for landscape historians, which is relevant also for adjoining states, particularly Saxony.

Waldeck und Pyrmont - Fürstentum

1:100k (1866 - single sheet) at

- for adequate quality, download vollbild jpeg and use zoom. Weird hypsometric tints! The detached section ([Bad] Pyrmont) also appears on the Hannover 100k (older, with better cultural detail). Generally, the (later) Karte des deutschen Reiches is better except for the contours.

has a low/medium-res collection ordered by theme / date which includes:

Niemayer plans, 1787-1813

Atlas of Prussian province of Westphalen, 1818 (13 sheets)

Not bad as a historical atlas but inadequate resolution for detailed maps.

Le Coq, Topographische Karte in 22 Blaettern, den grössten Theil von Westphalen enthaltend, so wie auch das Herzogthum Westphalen und einen Theil der hannövrischen, braunschweigischen u. heßischen Länder, 1:86,400, 1805. A set (some of >1812) is at

(Best viewed via links to individual sheets. Go to full-screen image for easy manipulation.)

Includes useful parts of Hannover where they lie within a sheet, and likewise some of the smaller states; but Bremen and the Batavian Republic were clearly off-limits.


1:50k, 1826-51, is at


Reymann´s Special-Karte, 1:200k, 1806-1908 (which extends to adjoining countries) is at

Generally these are states of 1850-80; and the Italian sheets are lacking.

(For index, see )

Its successor, the Topographische Übersichtskarte, 1:200k, 1891- is at

For the 1:100k, see

Individual sheets, with choice of dates, can be selected from a list at

Or, for a stitched-together set of 1893-8,

For the 1:25k, see

This seems to cover most of Prussian confederation, with an early set, as well as Alsace and Lorraine. For wider choice and all of Germany, see


General-Karte des Königreiches Griechenland by k. u k. militär-geografische Institut, 1:300k, 1885 at

The northernmost sheets may never have been published; for this area, see Kiepert, Carte de l'Epire et de la Thessallie (1871 corrected to 1880), 1:500k, at;0

For an earlier map, albeit poorly surveyed, it may be worth looking at Lapie, Carte Physique, Historique et Routière, 1:400k, 1826, in 4 sheets at;2


Ireland offers a unique instance where a topographic survey organisation, accustomed to producing maps of England & Wales at the one-inch scale, was transferred to another country within the United Kingdom (as then constituted) in order to facilitate a cadastral survey (although the Ordnance Survey limited itself to showing physical features, leaving the cadastral aspects to others). Having completed its work in Ireland, it returned to the mainland, continuing to operate at its new, 6-inch, scale. offers the initial 6-inch survey and also the later 25-inch, selectable under 'Base Information and Mapping'. There is no metadata.

The town maps at a scale of 5 feet to the mile (1:1056) are contemporary with the early 6-inch. Not all were printed. A collection, which may not include all towns surveyed, is at

This displays individual sheets, so the marginal data include dates of survey and revision.


Lombardy & Venice
1:288k, 1838, revised, 1856, copied by OS 1859, at

(4 sheets. Use green L, R arrows to move between them)

5 sheets of 1:50k (F4-F6, G5, G6) copied by OS 1866 are at

Naples & Sicily
Giovanni Antonio Bartolomeo Rizzi Zannoni, Atlante geografico del regno di Napoli, 1:114,525, 1812, at

This excludes Sicily but includes territory as far NW as Spoleto, to square the map.

A composite 'Map of the Southern Provinces of Italy' 1:50,000 (1862-76) is at In coloured form this survived to the 1940s.

Piedmont & Savoie
A composite 'Map of the states on the mainland of His Majesty the King of Sardinia',1:50k (1852-67) is at


Mellin, Atlas von Liefland, 1798, is at (a really neat site) has CG Rücker, Specialcharte von Livland, 1839, 1:186k along with a wide collection of maps that do not qualify for mention here.

Neumann, Kurland, c1:300k, 1833 is at

See also under Russia, and Chrzanowski's map of Poland.


Wojciech Chrzanowski: "Karta dawnej [former] Polski", 1:300k, 1859, 45 sheets. Index and 8 sheets are at


Starting point should be
This has been put together by the Topographisch Bureau and allows the user to select a date from a slider and to see, for that date, according to the zoom selected, coverage of an appropriate scale. It is really user-friendly, but doesn't say what the source is or its actual date.

Cruquius, Delfland, 1:10k, 1712 (included here because of its outstanding quality) is at

(Use the Overview Map, with zoom, initially. For more detail, note that the map is made up of 5x5 sheets that might usefully have been numbered 1,2,3,... . Work out which constituent sheet is needed and count through the individual sheets that follow the Overview Map to get the correct one.)

Kaart van Krayenhoff, 1:115,200, c1813 at;0

1809 state of later Sh VI at;2

1823 state (all 9 sheets) at;2

1829 state at

Province of Zuid Holland, 1:50k, 1846 (8 sheets) at;4

Topographische en Militaire Kaart, 1:50k: available at Individual sheets are at

Site has a good index diagram which appears to be interactive but isn't: one selects the desired map from the thumbnails on the right. Typically offers two states of each sheet, which limits the problem (noted in a Caert Thresoor article) of revision not reflected in the marginalia. But resolution (at max zoom) is inadequate to show built-up areas properly.
offers the same(?) sheets, stitched together and georeferenced but with the same resolution problem.

The cadaster of 1811-32 is at

This database relates each parish plan (verzamelplan) to its component minuutplannen and the associated tafels giving details of each plot. Along with each verzamelplan or minuutplan an outline is presented on a modern map. There is no easy way of seeing how the verzamelplannen fit together. The original means of doing this was JH Kips' Cadastral Atlas. An example of these, for the Hoekschen Waard (area SW of Dordrecht), 1:10k, 1835, is at;0

More accessible is a general compilation of cadastral plans of this era (still incomplete), redrawn to show land-use, at

Whereas the original plans distinguish by colour and by annotation certain categories of building(notably churches), the redrawn version shows all buildings in red, without annotation.


1:100k Rektangelkart is at (incomplete coverage)


Heldensfeld, Carte von West Gallizien, 1:172,800, 1808, is at

Wojciech Chrzanowski: "Karta dawnej [former] Polski", 1:300k, 1859, 45 sheets. Index and 8 sheets are at

Karte des westlichen Russlands, 1:100.000 (~ 1897-1917) extends Karte des deutschen Reiches to 45º Ferro (=27º40' E): index & individual sheets at

For Reymann´s Special-Karte, 1:200k, see under Germany.

Karta dawnéj Polski, 1:300k, 1859, at;0

See also


Moldavia (printed maps(+ some MS?) from 3rd Mil Svy,1892-8) at

Note that sheets extending into Wallachia are completed to neatlines, which allows comparison with the Wallachian 2nd Military Survey. For rest of country, see under Austria: 2nd Military Survey.


French military map of European Russia in 77 sheets (of which 28 sheets are here), 1:500k, 1812 at;2

'View 1' gives the index sheet (which you will need to open and enlarge). The other sheets follow in initially logical order : hovering the cursor over a sheet brings up an image large enough to read the sheet number.

3-verst map (1:126k) (set of 1872) is at


General Staff Map, 1:75k, 1894 is at

Difficult to use. 94 individual sheets, with a barely legible thumbnail index diagram. These Austrian-style maps do not give a very good picture and cannot be enlarged as much as one would wish. Longitudes on the maps are from Paris, so add c2º20' to convert to Greenwich.

Serbia is outside the coverage of the 2nd & 3rd Austrian-Hungarian Military Surveys.


Galicia: Fontan's 1:100k of 1834 (but printed 1845) in 3x4 sheets at

Use arrows to move to desired sheet; index is incorporated in sheet 3.


General Staff map, 1:100k, late 19th century, is at

Selecting a location by name and clicking Search gives a list of items. The General Staff Map is described as 'topographical map'; cadastral material is also available but requires considerable effort to relate to modern topography.

Switzerland shows any desired location at any desired date. The 100k Dufourkarte changes to the 50k/25k Siegfriedkarte when the latter appears, etc. Click on the wheel to expose a transparency slider. Click on the map to get metadata: yellow shows the area to which the data relate.

Mayer-Weiss Atlas, 1:120k, 1802, at

Regarded as the best map showing the whole country prior to the Dufourkarte.

United Kingdom

England & Wales
For the England & Wales Old Series one-inch, the CCS website
provides a convenient link to early states (National Library of Australia) and to a set of about 1862 (National Library of New Zealand).

The original drawings for the Old Series can be accessed at

2nd edn one-inch with hills is also at

For large-scale maps and small-scale from 1890s: offers excellent scan-quality and user-interface. Note that the 1st edition of six-inch maps in those counties started before 1865 tends to be represented by late specimens which have been subject to revision unacknowledged in the marginalia. The scanning of the town scales is still in progress with only SW England covered. In the meantime, the Manchester town plans can be accessed at
although finding a particular sheet can be a challenge.

Selby (incomplete) is at
(use green down-arrow, then L, R arrows to move between sheets)

Scotland offers Ordnance Survey maps of all scales with excellent user-interface.

Although part of the UK throughout the century, Ireland had a separate Ordnance Survey, so is listed as a separate country.